This was followed by French, taken by less than 50% of students. Corporate governance in the banking sector is a major concern. The Moldovans, Romania, Russia and the Politics of Culture , 2000. The country finally achieved its political independence from the Soviet Union in August 1991. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible SlavicVlach vassal tribe of Halych, were also present in much of the region's territory. Crossing the Carpathian mountains in 1359, the voivode took control of Moldavia and succeeded in creating Moldavia as an independent political entity. It is an interesting process. Cristina Petrescu, "Contrasting/Conflicting Identities:Bessarabians, Romanians, Moldovans" in, Andrew Higgins, "In Expanding Russian Influence, Faith Combines With Firepower,", compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, second poorest country in Europe by GDP per official capita, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova, Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests, Parliament failed to elect a new president, Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova, Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine, Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, International Union for Conservation of Nature, too many charts, tables or uncontextualized data, controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Moldova, Moldovan Intelligence and Security Service, "Vot ISTORIC: Sintagma limba romn" va lua locul limbii moldoveneti" n toate legile Republicii Moldova", "Limba moldoveneasc" dispare din toate legile Rep.Moldova, fiind nlocuit cu sintagma limba romn", "Preedintele CCM: Constituia confer limbii ruse un statut deosebit de cel al altor limbi minoritare", "Chiinu, (21.01.2021) Judectorii constituionali au decis c limba rus nu va avea statutul de limb de comunicare interetnic pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova", "Preedintele CC Domnica Manole, explic de ce a fost anulat legea cu privire la statutul special pentru limbia rus", "Recensamntul Populaiei si al Locuinelor 2014", "Numrul populaiei cu reedina obinuit pe medii i sexe, n profil teritorial, la nceputul anilor 2014-2022", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022", "The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency", GDP per capita, PPP (current international $), "EU awards Ukraine and Moldova candidate status", "The End of the Soviet Union; Text of Accords by Former Soviet Republics Setting Up a Commonwealth", "GEOARCHAEOLOGY OF THE EARLIEST PALEOLITHIC SITES (OLDOWAN) IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS AND THE EAST EUROPE", "Phase and chemical composition analysis of pigments used in Cucuteni Neolithic painted ceramics", "Cetatea Soroca a Moldovei (1499 prezent)", Letopiseul ri Moldovei, de cnd s-au desclecat ara, "Bessarabia, Chapter X: The Survival of Roumanian", "ChapterVIII: Russia organizes the province", "Mennonite-Nogai Economic Relations, 18251860", "Sfatul rii proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic", "The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines", "Foametea din anii 19461947 din RSS Moldoveneasc: cauze i consecine", "Political Repressions in the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic after 1956: Towards a Typology Based on KGB files Igor Casu", "Romanian Nationalism in the Republic of Moldova", "Legea cu privire la functionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenesti Nr.3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr.9/217, 1989", Russia's Hostile Measures: Combating Russian gray zone aggression against NATO in the contact, blunt, and surge layers of competition, "Remittance flows to developing countries are estimated to exceed US$300 billion in 2008", "Information Campaign to Increase the Efficiency of Remittance Flows", "The protest initiative group: LDPM is the guilty one for the devastations in the Chiinu downtown", "EU flags flying on the Presidency and Parliament, to calm the masses", "Moldovan referendum appears to flop on low turnout", "Moldova going to third election in two years", "Nicolae Timofti finally elected Moldova President", "New Moldavan pro-European coalition formed", "Audit links local tycoon to $1bn Moldovan bank fraud", "Moldova, Hunting Missing Millions, Finding Only Ash", "Moldovan prime minister Pavel Filip says 'last chance' to end national crisis", "UE se autosesizeaz: Moldova se ndreapt spre dictatur! Moldova is committed to a number of international and regional control of arms regulations such as the UN Firearms Protocol, Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan, the UN Programme of Action (PoA) and the OSCE Documents on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition. Moldova has 66 cities (towns), including 13 with municipality status, and 916 communes. A parliamentary majority of at least two-thirds is required to amend the Constitution of Moldova, which cannot be revised in times of war or national emergency. All independent organizations were severely reprimanded, with the National Patriotic Front leaders being sentenced in 1972 to long prison terms. Moldova joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Partnership for Peace on 16 March 1994. The largest part of the country (around 88% of the area) lies in Bessarabia region, between Prut and Dniester rivers, while a narrow strip in the east is located in Transnistria (east of the Dniester). [174], As of 2010[update], there are around 1,295,000 Internet users in Moldova with overall Internet penetration of 35.9%. Moldova is one of the poorest countries in. [64] New governments were formed by Vasile Tarlev (19 April 2001 31 March 2008), and Zinaida Greceani (31 March 2008 14 September 2009). In the 19th century, Moldavians from the territories of the medieval Principality of Moldavia, divided into Bessarabia, Bukovina, and Western Moldavia (after 1859, Romania), made a significant contribution to the formation of the modern Romanian culture. [106] On 5 December, another missile fell near the city of Briceni as Russia launched another wave of missile strikes against Ukraine. [citation needed] One Russian and two local channels are aired. EUBAM assists the Moldovan and Ukrainian governments in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards and offers support in both countries' fight against cross-border crime. Historian Strabo referred to the saigas as the kolos, describing it as "between the deer and ram in size" which (understandably but wrongly) was believed to drink through its nose. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became an autonomous state within the Russian Republic. Christmas is celebrated either on 7 January, the traditional date in Old Calendarists Eastern Orthodox Churches, or on 25 December, with both dates being recognized as public holidays. Association football is the most popular team sport in Moldova. The foreign minister of Moldova, Andrei Stratan, repeatedly stated that the Russian troops stationed in the breakaway region were there against the will of the Moldovan government and called on them to leave "completely and unconditionally". Moldova is one of the poorest countries in Europe, but wealth is far more evenly distributed than in most. In 2013 more than 60% of schoolchildren took it as their first foreign language. A deep crisis was to follow Alexander l's long reign, with his successors battling each other in a succession of wars that divided the country until the murder of Bogdan II and the accession of Peter Aaron in 1451. The capital city is Chisinau. According to Moldovan constitutional law, the president may call snap elections if no government is formed after three months. In chess, the Republic of Moldova has several international masters, among which can be mentioned Viorel Iordchescu, Dmitry Svetushkin, and Viorel Bologan. This makes for a total of 1,682 localities in Moldova, two of which are uninhabited.[137]. The Metropolis of Chiinu and All Moldova (the Moldovan Orthodox Church), autonomous and subordinated to the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Metropolis of Bessarabia (the Bessarabian Orthodox Church), autonomous and subordinated to the Romanian Orthodox Church, both claim to be the national church of the country. [123], Moldova signed the Association Agreement with the European Union in Brussels on 27 June 2014. [70][71][72], In August 2009, four Moldovan parties (Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Democratic Party, and Our Moldova Alliance) agreed to create the Alliance For European Integration that pushed the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova into opposition. The country's cultural heritage was marked by numerous churches and monasteries built by the Moldavian ruler Stephen the Great in the 15th century, by the works of the later renaissance Metropolitans Varlaam and Dosoftei, and those of scholars such as Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin, Nicolae Milescu, Dimitrie Cantemir[g] and Ion Neculce. His reign was one of the most successful in Moldavia's history. [104] The Russian army has a military base and a large ammunition dump in the region. [58] Similar events occurred in the 1930s in the Moldavian ASSR. [110] The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament (Parlament), which has 101 seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on party lists every four years. [217] Health expenditure was US$138 (PPP) per capita in 2004. Life expectancy in the ex-Soviet country is 67.5 years for men and 75.5 years for women, both among the poorest in Europe. The culture has been also influenced by the Byzantine culture, the neighbouring Magyar and Slavic populations, and later by the Ottoman Turks. As of 1 January 2016, the population of Republic of Moldova was estimated to be 4,067,485 people. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. Moldova in brief Destination Moldova, a Nations Online country profile of the small landlocked Eastern European country sandwiched between Ukraine and Romania in a region known as Bessarabia. The 1989 Language Law of the Moldavian SSR, which is still in effect in Moldova, according to the Constitution, asserts a "linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity". One Has Finally Resigned", "Moldova's Constitutional Court overturns all of its decisions that led to political crisis in country in 5 mins", "Moldova calls national code red alert over coronavirus, bans flights", "Moldova declares state of emergency over coronavirus outbreak", "Moldova reports first death from coronavirus, health ministry says", "Moldova election: Pro-EU candidate Maia Sandu wins presidency", "Moldova's pro-Russian prime minister Ion Chicu resigns", "Moldova Parliament Rejects Proposed PM, Bringing Elections Nearer", "Moldovan leader dissolves parliament, sets July elections", "Moldova's president calls early election for July 11", "President Sandu's party wins landslide victory in Moldova's snap election", "Natalia Gavrilia, noul prim-ministru al Republicii Moldova. Three parties the pro-Russian Socialist Party, the. In February 1918, it declared independence and then integrated into Romania later that year following a vote of its assembly. Another 700 villages are too small to have a separate administration and are administratively part of either cities (41 of them) or communes (659). In the 11th century, a Viking by the name of Rodfos was possibly killed in the area by the Blakumen who betrayed him. On 27 August 1989, the FPM organized a mass demonstration in Chiinu that became known as the Grand National Assembly. Moldova is a landlocked country located in Eastern Europe. Moldova's pro-Western and pro-Russian factions became increasingly divided since Russia's invasion of Ukraine. At the end of 2005, the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) was established at the joint request of the presidents of Moldova and Ukraine. From 1992 to 2001, the country suffered a serious economic crisis, leaving most of the population below the poverty line. Following the regional financial crisis in 1998, Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization. Moldova is a little land-locked country squeezed in between Northern Romania and Southern Ukraine with 2,6 million inhabitants. Analysis. In accordance with the Treaty of Bucharest of 1812, and despite numerous protests by Moldavian nobles on behalf of the sovereignty of their principality, the Ottoman Empire (of which Moldavia was a vassal) ceded to the Russian Empire the eastern half of the territory of the Principality of Moldavia along with Khotyn and old Bessarabia (modern Budjak), which Russia had already conquered and annexed. Montenegro - $7,686. [12] Moldova is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and the Association Trio. The Romanian majority living there is of course latin. The 1994 Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country. [88] On 17 March, Parliament declared a state of emergency for at least 60 days, suspended all international flights and closed borders with neighbours Romania and Ukraine. The Moldovan armed forces consists of the Ground Forces and Air Force. language is a Romance language with Latin roots but with significant Slavic influences. Romanian forces, working with the Germans, deported or massacred about 300,000 Jews[citation needed], including 147,000 from Bessarabia and Bukovina. The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was 41.5C (106.7F) on 21 July 2007 in Camenca. Today, the Bulgarians form one of the most solid elements in Southern Bessarabia, numbering (with the Gagauzes, i.e., Turkish-speaking Christians also from the Dobrudja) nearly 150,000. [150], After the breakup of the USSR in 1991, energy shortages, political uncertainty, trade obstacles and weak administrative capacity contributed to the decline of Moldova's economy. Montenegro "[133] Moldova "has made noteworthy progress on religious freedom since the era of the Soviet Union, but it can still take further steps to foster diversity," said the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief Heiner Bielefeldt, in Chiinu, in September 2011. Natalia squeezed into the final by a very small margin. Moldovans, sometimes referred to as Moldavians ( Romanian: moldoveni [moldoven], Moldovan Cyrillic: ), is a term used to describe the Romanian-speaking indigenous people of the Republic of Moldova and the largest self-declared ethnic group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population as of 2014) as well as a significant minority The Giurgiuleti terminal on the Danube is compatible with small seagoing vessels. Radu Albot is one of the most successful Moldovan tennis players, with ATP singles (2019 Delray Beach Open) and doubles (2015 Istanbul Open) titles. On 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. The traditional Latin origins of Romanian culture reach back to the 2nd century, the period of Roman colonization in Dacia.. During the centuries following the Roman withdrawal in 271, the population of the region . But there live also about 30% of Russians, Ucraineans and some smaller minorities which are non-slavic. About 14% of the population did not declare their nationality. [187], The official language of Moldova is Romanian, a Romance language. This expansion was made possible by adequate macroeconomic stabilization measures and ambitious structural reforms implemented in the wake of the crisis under a Fund-supported program. On 7 June, the Constitutional Court, which is largely believed to be controlled by Vladimir Plahotniuc[83] from the Democratic Party, announced that they had temporarily removed the sitting president, Igor Dodon, from power due to his inability to call new parliamentary elections as the parliament did not form a coalition within three months of the validation of the election results. Moldova is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and the Association Trio. Produsul intern brut n anul 2012, date actualizate, Produsul intern brut n Republica Moldova n anul 2013, date actualizate, Economia Moldovei a nregistrat o crestere de 4,6%, n 2014, i constituie 111 miliarde de lei, "Economia Republicii Moldova, n SCDERE n 2015; Ultimele cifre de la Statistic", "BNS: Economia Republicii Moldova a crescut cu 4,5% n anul 2017", "Salariului mediu lunar pe economie in anul 2018 este de 6150 lei / Editorial / Monitorul fiscal", "INS: Salariul mediu pe economie, n cretere n iunie", " 2018 ! Due to the temporarily suspended militaty conflict with the Pridnestrovian Republic, this country was known as the last hot spot in Europe, until recent conflicts in Ukraine. In a country with a population of 3.5 million, of which 1 million are abroad, there are more than 700,000 pensioners. Officially, the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations. **If counted as European countries rather than Asian countries, the transcontinental countries Azerbaijan ($4,214) and Armenia ($4,268) would also appear on the above list. The species was reintroduced with the arrival of three European bison from Biaowiea Forest in Poland several days before Moldova's Independence Day on 27 August 2005. Deforestation, demographic pressure, as well as excessive hunting eradicated the native saiga herds which is currently threatened with extinction. In November 2013, Moldova initialed an Association Agreement with the EU which includes provisions establishing a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA). [163] Moldova has also achieved a Free Visa Regime[164] with the EU which represents the biggest achievement of Moldovan diplomacy since independence. [84] However, on 8 June, the NOW Platform DA and PAS reached an agreement with the Socialist party forming a government led by Maia Sandu as the new prime minister, pushing the Democratic Party out of power. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2013 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences connecting Moldovan products to the world's largest market. Moldova has achieved a substantial degree of fiscal consolidation in recent years, but this trend is now reversing. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 2.2/10, ranking it 158th globally out of 172 countries. It did not happen for instance with Bulgars. [94] Parliamentary elections took place on 11 July 2021. The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of Southeastern Europe some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity in Greece. In 2012, the average age of women at first birth was 23.9 years, with 75.2% of births being to women under 30, and 22.4% of births being to unmarried women. Trnt (a form of wrestling) is the national sport in Moldova. It does not have nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological weapons. [95] The snap parliamentary elections resulted in a landslide win for the pro-European Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS). [80] Concerns over statewide corruption, the independence of the judiciary system, and the nontransparency of the banking system were expressed. Romania is a country of roughly 19 million people. Based on the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) regional poverty line of US$5/day (PPP), 55 percent of the population was poor in 2011. [74] On 30 December 2010, Marian Lupu was elected as the Speaker of the Parliament and the acting President of the Republic of Moldova. [96] On 6 August 2021, the Natalia Gavrilia-led cabinet was sworn in to office with 61 votes, all from the Party of Action and Solidarity (PAS). Moldova is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. The group is still active and released their latest album in 2017. As part of the 1941 Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania regained the territories of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and seized a territory which became known as Transnistria Governorate. The dog's name, given to the river, extended to the principality.[22]. Slavic is a group of Indo-European Languages divided into 3 sub groups ( East Slavic , West Slavic and South Slavic ) . Most of Moldova's Jewish population emigrated between 1979 and 2004. In 2000, the Constitution was amended, transforming Moldova into a parliamentary republic, with the president being chosen through indirect election rather than direct popular vote. The economy recovered from the drought-related contraction in 2012. The Ministry reported no people were hurt but the windows of several residential homes were shattered. [199] For the 2004 census, Orthodox Christians, who make up 93.3% of Moldova's population, were not required to declare the particular of the two main churches they belong to. [17] Human trafficking of Moldovan women and children to other parts of Europe is a serious problem. Structural fiscal reforms would help safeguard sustainability. Population: 2.1: Population and the demographic structure", "Republic of Moldova 2014 - Census de facto complete tabulation", "Ethnic composition of Transnistria 2004", "The text of the Declaration of Independence prevails over the text of the Constitution", "Declaraia de independena a Republicii Moldova, Moldova Suveran", "A Field Guide to the Main Languages of Europe Spot that language and how to tell them apart", "ADEPT: Laws of the Republic of Moldova: The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova", "Hotrre Nr. [147], Once possessing a range from the British Isles through Central Asia over the Bering Strait into Alaska and Canada's Yukon as well as the Northwest Territories, saigas survived in Moldova and Romania into the late 18th century. Russian was used in relations with citizens from other parts of the Soviet Union. Gagauz, Russian, and Ukrainian languages are granted official regional status in Gagauzia and/or Transnistria . [220], Emigration is a mass phenomenon in Moldova and has a major impact on the country's demographics and economy. [92] The parliament, dominated by pro-Russian Socialists, did not accept any Prime Minister candidate proposed by the new president. The song received a lot of airplay and reached number one place on the charts in Moldova as well as Russia. [211], The total fertility rate (TFR) in Moldova was estimated in 2015 at 1.56 children/woman,[213] which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. In 1940, as a consequence of the MolotovRibbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR). When in May 1600, Michael the Brave removed Ieremia Movil from Moldavia's throne by winning the battle of Bacu, briefly reuniting under his rule Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, a Polish army led by Jan Zamoyski drove the Wallachians from Moldavia. [58] Other forms of Soviet persecution of the population included political arrests or, in 8,360 cases, execution. Moldova lies between latitudes 45 and 49 N, and mostly between meridians 26 and 30 E (a small area lies east of 30). [211] In two days, loans worth US$1 billion were transferred in to United Kingdom and Hong Kong-registered companies whose ultimate owners are unknown. [209][210], In 2014, US$1 billion disappeared from three of Moldova's leading banks. [218] According to a 2009 study, Moldova was struggling with one of the highest incidence rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. [119][120] The European orientation "has been the policy of Moldova in recent years and this is the policy that must continue," Nicolae Timofti told lawmakers before his election in 2012. [24] During the Neolithic Age, Moldova's territory stood at the centre of the large CucuteniTrypillia culture that stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, corruption, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and the separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region. The Soviet Army re-captured the region in FebruaryAugust 1944, and re-established the Moldavian SSR. Reconomica ", "Association Agreement between the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Moldova, of the other part", "Download entire World Economic Outlook database", "This Massive Underground City is Filled With Wine", "Legea cu privire la seciile pentru reforma agrar n cadrul organelor de autoadministrare local ale Republicii Moldova Nr.129 din 02.03.92, Monitorul Oficial nr.3/80, 1992", R. Moldova are deja peste dou milioane de utilizatori ai serviciilor de telefonie mobil, "Orange launches HD mobile phone service", "the Government approved the licensing of 4G / LTE for mobile operators", Strengthening Social Cohesion and a Common Identity in the Republic of Moldova, "Statistical Yearbook of Moldova 2017: Results of the 2004 Population Census: 2. In August 2013, work began on a new pipeline between Moldova and Romania that may eventually break Russia's monopoly on Moldova's gas supplies. Slavic languages had a big impact on . This union was recognized by most of the principal Allied Powers in the 1920 Treaty of Paris, which however was not ratified by all of its signatories. In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace programme, Moldova is also a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. By ethnic composition, the population of Transnistria was distributed as follows: Russians - 29.1%, Moldovans - 28.6%, Ukrainians - 22.9%, Bulgarians - 2.4%, Gagauzians - 1.1%, Belarusians - 0.5%, Transnistrian - 0.2%, other nationalities - 1.4%. Likewise, Traian Bsescu declared that the unification of Moldova with Romania is the next national project for Romania, as more than 75% of the population speaks Romanian. Its estimated number of native . She took tenth place with 109 points. During this time, Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, beginning in the 15th century, by the Ottoman Turks. This article is about the modern state. [121][full citation needed], On 29 November 2013, at a summit in Vilnius, Moldova signed an association agreement with the European Union dedicated to the European Union's 'Eastern Partnership' with ex-Soviet countries. Free shipping for many products! The miracle about them is that, although genetically they basically are just germans, slavs and romanians melted by force and deception into this nation, the language could be imposed. Official Soviet policy asserted that the language spoken by Moldovans was distinct from the Romanian language (see Moldovenism). Although Alexander I was brought to the throne in 1400 by the Hungarians (with assistance from Mircea I of Wallachia), this ruler shifted his allegiances towards Poland (notably engaging Moldavian forces on the Polish side in the Battle of Grunwald and the siege of Marienburg), and placed his own choice of rulers in Wallachia. Vladimir Voronin, who had been President of Moldova since 2001, eventually resigned on 11 September 2009, but the Parliament failed to elect a new president. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Bessarabian parliament, Sfatul rii (a National Council), was elected in OctoberNovember 1917 and opened on December 3[O.S. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau, and parts of the Eurasian Steppe. Years of Communist Party rule in Moldova from 2001-09 ultimately ended with election-related violent protests and a rerun of parliamentary elections in 2009.